Audacious Facts About Catalina de Erauso, The Daredevil Nun

August 26, 2023 | Miles Brucker

Audacious Facts About Catalina de Erauso, The Daredevil Nun

Gender-bending nun. Bloodthirsty soldier. Shameless womanizer. Catalina de Erauso is an anti-hero for the ages. Growing up in the blood-soaked fall of the Spanish Empire, Erauso's chilling life replicated the brutality of their youth. They travelled the world and led colonial armies with an iron fist--and yet, Erauso can't be defined as a simple villain. Catalina has also gone down in history for rebelling against gender norms and living on their own wholly unique terms. So, is Erauso friend or foe? Read on and decide for yourself.

1. They Were Born into Nobility

But before we begin, a note: To this day, people aren't sure whether to call Catalina de Erauso a lesbian, a transgender person, or another term. Since we can't know which pronouns Erauso would prefer, we're using the "they" pronoun to reflect Erauso's gender-nonconformity.

Erauso entered a life of conflict, thanks to their father's job as the commander of the King of Spain's forces. Unfortunately, this particular king, Phillip III, wasn't the best boss. Philip brought the Spanish Empire into so many bloody conflicts that historians now credit him with destroying the empire. Maybe seeing this vicious downfall influenced Catalina's bloodthirsty actions later in life?

2. They Learned to Fight

Thanks to their commander-dad Miguel, Erauso learned to fight as soon as possible. Miguel threw Catalina and their siblings into the trenches of training, no matter their gender. Even though Catalina began life as a girl, they learned the art of combat alongside their brothers. Already, their life was shaping up to be two things: utterly unique...and completely violent.

Catalina de Erauso FactsThe Lieutenant Nun (1944), Clasa Films Mundiales

3. They Were Forced Into a Convent

Even though the Erauso family decided to train their kids in combat, mom and dad didn’t actually want that type of life for their children. When Catalina was only four years old, mom and dad sent their little tyke off to a convent alongside their two sisters. To say that Erauso didn't like life in the strict convent would be a huge understatement.

Catalina de Erauso FactsWikimedia Commons

4. They Were Born a Rebel

Erauso rebelled against convent life from the very first day they set foot in the stone building. But being unfairly confined ended up making an enormous impact on Catalina. While they were cooped up at the nunnery, Erauso realized that gender roles could not define them. With this epiphany, young Catalina began to rebel against societal rules.

Catalina de Erauso FactsThe Lieutenant Nun (1944), Clasa Films Mundiales

5. They Became a Hot Head

While Catalina was stuck in the convent, they developed a fiery personality and a short fuse. Erauso gained a reputation for being quick-tempered and starting fights--and unfortunately for Catalina's opponents, Erauso was a tough cookie. With Catalina's strong and stocky frame, Erauso took down anyone who got in their way. It was a skill that would serve Catalina well later in life.

Catalina de Erauso FactsShutterstock

6. They Got Used to Life in a Cell

Can you imagine being put into a convent as a child, but not caring about religion? What about being shoved into a place because of your gender, even though you didn't identify with being a girl? Unfortunately for Erauso, they had to deal with all this turmoil. Catalina was deeply unhappy at the convent and eventually, refused to take vows to become a nun. To get back at their disobedient charge, the nuns came up with a brutal punishment.

Joanna Of Castile factsShutterstock

7. They Faced Off Against Cruel Nuns

The nuns trapped little Catalina in a cell, but they didn't confine Erauso just because of the whole not-taking-vows situation. They also did it because Catalina got involved in a serious beef with a woman living at the convent. Erauso's rival was a prim and proper widow who loved convent life and happily took her vows. Unsurprisingly, Catalina and this lady didn't get along at all. As punishment, the nuns would confine and, even worse, constantly beat Erauso.

Micaela Almonester FactsPxfuel

8. They Made a Great Escape

After one too many beatings at the hands of the nuns, Erauso decided that it was high time to get out of Dodge. By this time, Catalina was 15 years old, meaning that they had suffered a brutal 11 years of imprisonment and spent most of their life inside the gloomy convent. Of course, escape wouldn't be easy...but our pal Catalina was up to the task...

Catalina de Erauso FactsThe Lieutenant Nun (1944), Clasa Films Mundiales

9. They Got Lucky...For a Time

After a lifetime of unhappiness, Erauso finally got a lucky break when they decided to get out of the convent. The cunning teen waited for the San Jose holiday to put their plan into motion. As prayer distracted the nuns, Erauso went looking for the keys of the convent. Easy peasy, a nun accidentally left them hanging in a corner. Catalina snatched them up and walked right out of the place. So far, so good--but this good luck would run out fast. 

Catalina de Erauso FactsShutterstock

10. They Finally Felt Free

Having escaped the convent, Erauso became an outlaw. As the authorities searched for the teen escapee, Catalina cleverly took on a disguise: Already rocking short hair, they spent a week sewing boy's clothing before settling in the city of Vitoria. While there, our nun-on-the-run realized that passing for a boy wasn't just easy, but liberating. By dressing as a young man, Erauso felt free.

Catalina de Erauso FactsWallpaper Flare

11. They Were a Survivor

Life at the convent was tough for Catalina, but in a way, this harsh upbringing was a good thing. It helped prepared Erauso for life on the run. While in Vitoria, they befriended a doctor who just so happened to be their distant relative. Sensing that the "young man" meant him no trouble, the doctor offered Erauso refuge at his home. Things started well, but things quickly took a turn for the worse.

Catalina de Erauso FactsThe Lieutenant Nun (1944), Clasa Films Mundiales

12. Their Savior Turned Sour

Unfortunately, it didn't take long for the doctor to start harassing his young housemate. Three months was all that Erauso could take until they ran away from the doctor’s home. But before leaving, Erauso got their revenge. They robbed money from the doctor, rented a mule driver, and made their way to Valladolid on their enemy's coin.

Alessandro De Medici FactsShutterstock

13. They Got a Promotion

Valladolid was home to the king’s court and, as such, always welcomed a helping hand. Going by the name of Francisco de Loyola, Erauso quickly got a job working in the court as a page for the king’s personal secretary. Things went smoothly, until one day, when Erauso's father Miguel came to the king’s court to meet with the king’s secretary.

Catalina de Erauso FactsPixabay

14. Their Father Didn’t Know How to Find Them

When Erauso's father arrived, he met Francisco de Loyola without realizing that "Francisco" was actually his own child! Miguel told the page that he was looking for his daughter Catalina, who had recently escaped from a convent and was on the run from the law. Desperate, Miguel looked "Francisco" in the eyes and described his daughter so that the king could put a notice out.

Catalina de Erauso FactsWikimedia Commons

15. They Lived on the Streets

With that, Erauso knew it was time to skip town. Even if Miguel couldn't recognize them with a male disguise, that didn't mean someone else wouldn't catch on. "Francisco" stepped their way right out of Valladolid as soon as possible and headed to Bilbao, where only misery awaited. While there, Erauso lived on the streets, with neither roof nor food. But life on the street comes with other dangers.

Catalina de Erauso FactsPixabay

16. They Lashed Out

Erauso was a tough cookie, but this quality sometimes hurt more than it helped. While living on the streets of Bilbao, a group of boys began picking on them. After the hellions ganged up on them one too many times, Erauso threw a rock at one of the boys and hurt him so badly that the authorities came and locked Erauso in a cell.

Catalina de Erauso FactsShutterstock

17. Their Family Was Oblivious

After the authorities released Erauso, they bounced around before going home to San Sebastián. By now, they had decided to present themselves publicly as a man. While home, they returned to their family, taking care of relatives and even attending mass with them at their old convent. The entire time, no one had any idea that the man at their side was actually their beloved lost relative, Catalina.

Catalina de Erauso FactsPixabay

18. They Took an Epic Journey

Not long after returning to Seville, Erauso decided to embark on a journey that would change everything. On Holy Monday, 1603, they joined the crew of their uncle's ship. It would set sail for "The New World" and explore the Americas.

Catalina de Erauso FactsPixnio

19. They Dressed as a Man

Erauso did their best to pass as a man by donning short hair, wearing male clothing, and living under male aliases like Alonso Diaz. But Erauso used other methods too. "Diaz" picked up male mannerisms, tried to look ugly, and even went so far as to stop bathing...completely. But still, there was one, or rather two, problems: their chest. Eventually, Erauso went to extreme measures, using a mysterious ointment to flatten their chest.

Catalina de Erauso FactsThe Lieutenant Nun (1944), Clasa Films Mundiales

20. They Were Hot

Whatever Erauso did to their appearance, it seems to have worked. Ladies just couldn't resist Catalina's charms, and when you look at a portrait, it's easy to see why. Catalina had thick dark hair, a masculine jawline, and a strapping build. What's more, they knew they looked good. Erauso used their handsomeness to leave a trail of broken hearts all over South America.

Catalina de Erauso FactsWikimedia Commons

21. They Battled Pirates

When Erauso's ship stopped near modern-day Venezuela, our hero experienced their first live combat against a fleet of pirates. Drawing on their combat training, Catalina rose to the occasion and helped defeat the enemy fleet. But this victory lap was short. As the ship sailed through South America, many of the other sailors became ill and lost their lives. As hard times fell, Erauso took control of the voyage with chilling consequences.

Thought Were Lies But True FactsMax Pixel

22. There was a Family Feud

Exhausted and ill, the crew decided to pack it in and return to Spain. Catalina, on the other hand, wasn’t sure about going back. As Erauso quarrelled with their uncle, the ship's captain, the fight escalated until Erauso fatally wounded their own relative. As though that wasn't bad enough, Catalina then robbed him of all his money, hid his body, and snuck off the ship before the crew was any wiser.

Anna of Russia factsShutterstock

23. They Were Messy

When the crew discovered that their captain was no more, they took it as yet another sign that their trip was doomed. After Erauso snuck off the ship, the crew took off for Spain. Erauso, on the other hand, kept exploring. They headed to Ecuador  with the famous merchant of Trujillo, Juan de Urquiza. But, as always, once Erauso got out of one mess, they fell right into another.

Catalina de Erauso FactsThe Lieutenant Nun (1944), Clasa Films Mundiales

24. They Were Brave

Horrible storms and turbulent weather battered Erauso's ship as it sailed for the port of Manta. As the rain poured down, everyone aboard the ship perished...everyone, that is, except Catalina, who miraculously survived. While swimming to shore, Erauso spotted the captain, Juan de Urquiza, and swam out to save him. Erauso's heroic efforts would not go unappreciated.

Catalina de Erauso FactsPikrepo

25. They Couldn’t Escape Trouble

Urquiza rewarded Erauso by bringing them to his hometown, where he gave them a house, clothing, large sums of money, and three African servants. For anyone else, this would be where the story ended, but for Catalina, a life of privilege would never be enough. It didn't take long for our hero to make some trouble once again...

Catalina de Erauso FactsShutterstock

26. They Were Ruthless

One night, Catalina was passing the time at a theater and enjoying some comedy--until a young man accosted them. It was a bold move, considering Erauso's reputation. After a vigorous fight, Catalina emerged as the champion...and they had a bloody souvenir: the winning strike saw Erauso slice off their opponent's face.

Catalina de Erauso FactsWikimedia Commons

27. They Got Out...On a Chilling Condition

After this gross event, Catalina was landed inside a cell once again. Luckily, their pal Juan de Urquiza sweet-talked the authorities until they agreed to let Erauso go. They just had one condition: Remember Catalina's faceless foe? Erauso now had to marry that guy's aunt. Awkward...

Drug Cartels FactsShutterstock

28. They Couldn't Stay Out of Trouble

Catalina agreed, but once out of the clink, refused to tie the knot in fear that the bride would discover that Erauso didn't have male privates. Desperate, they fled to Trujillo, with their faceless foe hot on their tail. The young man, now horribly scarred, eventually caught up to Catalina and challenged his assailant to another fight. This time, Erauso fatally wounded one of the faceless man's friends and, shocker, was imprisoned yet again.

Catalina de Erauso FactsThe Lieutenant Nun (1944), Clasa Films Mundiales

29. They Weren’t The Best Employee

At this point, Juan de Urquiza was used to bailing out his pal Erauso. After he helped them out yet again, Catalina headed to Lima to try their fortunes as a shop-worker. Yeah, it didn't go well. In just nine months, Erauso was looking for a new job, thanks to some dicey at-work behavior. Catalina's boss discovered that his employee was having an affair with his wife’s sister. And by having an affair, I mean the boss walked in on Erauso intimately caressing his sister-in-law in the back of his shop.

Cab Drivers Share Experience factsGetty Images

30. They were Irresistible

According to Erauso, they were innocent in the whole "My boss caught me with his hot sister-in-law" situation. If you believe Catalina's version of events, the lady was so thirsty for Erauso that after weeks of flirting, she shoved them against a wall, gave them her best "come hither" eyes, and ordered Erauso to take her to bed. Well then!

Catalina de Erauso FactsThe Lieutenant Nun (1944), Clasa Films Mundiales

31. Their Brutality Came Out

At this point, Erauso realized that they couldn’t continue their wild lifestyle. They'd either end up in prison or blow their cover. Lucky for them, Spain was in conquest mode, so they decided to go colonize Chile. In this vicious conflict, Catalina showed their chilling true colors. They began making a name for themselves as a conquistador by ruthlessly conquering the Mapuches and massacring native peoples. Just the qualities that the Spanish crown was looking for.

Wildest Things Found Inside Houses factsPixabay

32. They Ran Into Their Brother

Erauso's bravery and whip-fast combat style gave them a fierce reputation, until some family drama got in between them and military greatness. While in Chile, Catalina fought under the leadership of, of all people, their own brother, Don Miguel. He was the governor’s secretary and for three years they got along, with Don Miguel having no idea that his new friend was his long-lost sibling.

Ninjas FactsShutterstock

33. There was a Family Love Triangle

After Erauso spent three years secretly alongside Don Miguel, everything fell apart. In a wild twist, Don Miguel personally banished his own sibling and forced Catalina to live in the land of the natives. What happened to wedge the siblings apart? A girl, of course! When Don Miguel found out that Erauso was, uh, romancing his long-time mistress, he showed them the door.

Catalina de Erauso FactsShutterstock

34. They were a Womanizer

While we don't know which Erauso sibling the mystery woman preferred more, we do know that Catalina had a way with the ladies. In their memoirs, Erauso often provides, ahem, spicy details about their love life, with one passage reading, "I had my head in the folds of her skirt and she was combing my hair while I ran my hand up and down between her legs"..

Catalina de Erauso FactsThe Lieutenant Nun (1944), Clasa Films Mundiales

35. They Took Orders from No One

Erauso gained a reputation being being a formidable conquistador, but a vicious streak tainted their good name. Catalina's malice towards the natives was extreme even for Spanish conquistador standards, and that's saying something. After fighting the Mapuche tribe, Erauso defied orders by capturing the Mapuche leader and, instead of handing him over for interrogation, mercilessly hung the man themselves. Yikes.

Law Enforcement Creepy Calls FactsFlickr

36. Their Brave Claim to Fame

Catalina's chilling act led the Spanish forces to pass on giving Erauso a promotion. Ticked off at the snub, Catalina reminded the Spanish that during one battle, a group of Mapuche got their hands on the Spanish battalion’s flag. To get it back, Catalina went behind enemy lines, slaughtered anyone who got in their way, and rescued the flag. Despite this valiant act, the Spanish forces were clear: Erauso would not get the promotion. With this rebuff, Catalina went mad with fury.

Nightmare NeighborsPexels

37. Their Fury was Limitless

During this period of Erauso's life, the ex-conquistador lashed out at anyone who stepped in their way. Catalina hit the road and began vandalizing all the properties they passed through. On one especially bad day, they burned entire crop fields. But that was nothing compared to the carnage that awaited Catalina in the city of Concepción.

Shocking Things Next DoorFlickr, momboleum

38. They Committed an Awful Crime

In Concepción, Erauso ran into a shocking person: their estranged brother, Don Miguel. Neither sibling had forgotten their love triangle feud, and it didn't take long for things to get messy. Erauso and Don Miguel began to duel, and the fight only stopped when Don Miguel's body hit the floor. No one knows if, at any point, Don Miguel realized that the person who ended his life was his own long lost sibling.

Duelling factsShutterstock

39. They Faced the Abyss

After slaying their own brother, Catalina fled Chile and took the treacherous path across the Andes to Argentina. While crossing the Andes, Erauso finally met their match. The perilous journey through the harsh mountains led Erauso to desperation. Having already eaten their own horse, Catalina thought the end was nigh...until a villager swooped in and saved them. However, before the villager would save them, Erauso had to promise to marry two different young women.

Catalina de Erauso FactsWallpaper Flare

40. Erauso Didn’t Like to Keep Promises

Just like last time, Erauso said whatever they had to say to get out of a bind--without having any real intention to make good on their promises. However, this time, Catalina took their deception one step further. They agreed to marry both women and went so far along with wedding prep that they pocketed their fiancée's dowries...before skipping town. Ice cold, Erauso.

Prince Albert FactsShutterstock

41. Some People Just Don’t Change

It was life on the road again once more for Erauso, and they returned to conquistador's life by fighting against the natives and participating in the genocide of the Chuncos. However, again their compatriots took their efforts for granted, and Catalina was falsely accused of misconduct, taken captive, tortured, and released. This time Erauso may have been innocent, but it didn’t steer them from their bloodthirsty ways.

Catherine Parr FactsShutterstock

42. They Were Sentenced to Die

Before long, Erauso returned to the fugitive lifestyle. After smuggling wheat and cattle, the authorities caught onto Catalina's illict activities and pursued the ex-conquistador. Erauso hid in a church to evade their captors, but as always, they just couldn't stay out of a trouble. After getting into a fight, Catalina wound up killing their opponent. With bloody hands, the authorities stepped in and sentenced them to die.

Death Row FactsShutterstock

43. Off the Hook

Facing their demise, Catalina was once again somehow saved at the last minute. This time, Erauso's savior was their cell-mate, a man who was also set to lose his head for his offenses. Knowing he'd have to face the sword anyway, this other prisoner confessed to Erauso's offences and took the fall. Thanks to his sacrifice, Catalina went free.

Queen Maria I of Portugal FactsShutterstock

44. They Couldn't Quit Their Vices

Erauso had amazing luck--and it seems to have made them kind of egotistical. Every time they narrowly escaped doom, they got in trouble almost immediately! Catalina just couldn't resist two classic vices: violence and women. And so, just after escaping the blade, what did Erauso do? Get involved with a married woman and challenge her husband to a duel. Sigh.

Catalina de Erauso FactsShutterstock

45. They Begged for Mercy

By this point, the authorities were desperate to catch Erauso and put an end to their bloody ways. Eventually, armed forces caught up with them, but before the guards could take their charge into custody, Catalina ran their sword through their captor's stomach. Lucky for Erauso, the Bishop Agustín de Carvajal just so happened to be in town. Catalina begged him for mercy, but to get it, Erauso would have to reveal their big secret...

Sir Walter Raleigh factsShutterstock

46. They Revealed Their Secret

It was at this time that Erauso finally revealed their true identity. The stunned bishop couldn't believe what he was hearing: this bloodthirsty soldier had begun life as a nun-in-training? Flabbergasted, the bishop had a group of nurses examine Erauso to, shall we say, fact check their story. The nurses confirmed that Catalina had female anatomy. With his jaw on the floor, the bishop pardoned Erauso and put them on a shop heading back to Spain.

Catalina de Erauso FactsThe Lieutenant Nun (1944), Clasa Films Mundiales

47. They Got an Audience with the Pope

By the time Catalina returned to Spain, the story of their fantastical life had spread, making Erauso a bit of a celebrity. It's safe to say that they enjoyed their time in the spotlight. Erauso used their newfound fame to demand the Spanish Crown to pay them for their service on the battlefield, and to foot the bill for their travel expenses. But Catalina's most brazen demand was still in store...

Catalina de Erauso FactsWikimedia Commons, TheRichic

48. The Pope Signed Off

Erauso took the opportunity of meeting the pope by the horns. During their meeting, they personally asked Pope Urban VIII for permission to live as a man. It was a risky move for Catalina, but then again, they were quite the risk-taker. The pope said yes to the request, and gave Erauso permission to dress and sign their name as a man.

Catalina de Erauso FactsWikimedia Commons

49. A New World Soul

After a few years in Spain, Erauso had enough of the old world and moved back to the new world, settling in modern-day Mexico. They took up a job transferring goods with a pack of mules and eventually passed on in Mexico under mysterious circumstances. No one knows how or when they actually died and the last years of their life remain a mystery to this day.

Catalina de Erauso FactsPexels

50. If You Want to be Remembered, You’ve Got to Do It Yourself

The reason why we know so much about Catalina de Erauso, and they haven’t been completely lost to history even if people have tried to bury the truth, is that they wrote an autobiography during their later years in Spain before moving to Mexico. The autobiography has been a source of inspiration for many writers and academics since the nineteenth century. However, because they wrote it in Spain, their last years in Mexico are likely to forever remain in the dark.

Catalina de Erauso FactsWikipedia

Sources:  1, 2, 3, 45

More from Factinate

Featured Article

My mom never told me how her best friend died. Years later, I was using her phone when I made an utterly chilling discovery.

Dark Family Secrets

Dark Family Secrets Exposed

Nothing stays hidden forever—and these dark family secrets are proof that when the truth comes out, it can range from devastating to utterly chilling.
April 8, 2020 Samantha Henman

Featured Article

Madame de Pompadour was the alluring chief mistress of King Louis XV, but few people know her dark history—or the chilling secret shared by her and Louis.

Madame de Pompadour Facts

Entrancing Facts About Madame de Pompadour, France's Most Powerful Mistress

Madame de Pompadour was the alluring chief mistress of King Louis XV, but few people know her dark history—or the chilling secret shared by her and Louis.
December 7, 2018 Kyle Climans

More from Factinate

Featured Article

I tried to get my ex-wife served with divorce papers. I knew that she was going to take it badly, but I had no idea about the insane lengths she would go to just to get revenge and mess with my life.

These People Got Genius Revenges

When someone really pushes our buttons, we'd like to think that we'd hold our head high and turn the other cheek, but revenge is so, so sweet.
April 22, 2020 Scott Mazza

Featured Article

Catherine of Aragon is now infamous as King Henry VIII’s rejected queen—but few people know her even darker history.

Catherine of Aragon Facts

Tragic Facts About Catherine of Aragon, Henry VIII’s First Wife

Catherine of Aragon is now infamous as King Henry VIII’s rejected queen—but very few people know her even darker history.
June 7, 2018 Christine Tran

Dear reader,

Want to tell us to write facts on a topic? We’re always looking for your input! Please reach out to us to let us know what you’re interested in reading. Your suggestions can be as general or specific as you like, from “Life” to “Compact Cars and Trucks” to “A Subspecies of Capybara Called Hydrochoerus Isthmius.” We’ll get our writers on it because we want to create articles on the topics you’re interested in. Please submit feedback to Thanks for your time!

Do you question the accuracy of a fact you just read? At Factinate, we’re dedicated to getting things right. Our credibility is the turbo-charged engine of our success. We want our readers to trust us. Our editors are instructed to fact check thoroughly, including finding at least three references for each fact. However, despite our best efforts, we sometimes miss the mark. When we do, we depend on our loyal, helpful readers to point out how we can do better. Please let us know if a fact we’ve published is inaccurate (or even if you just suspect it’s inaccurate) by reaching out to us at Thanks for your help!

Warmest regards,

The Factinate team

Want to learn something new every day?

Join thousands of others and start your morning with our Fact Of The Day newsletter.

Thank you!

Error, please try again.