Knowledge is Power

Advertisement

“Just one drop of your blood contains billions of strands of DNA, the building blocks of life! A DNA strand, like me, is a blueprint for building a living thing. And sometimes, animals that went extinct millions of years ago, like dinosaurs, left their blueprints behind for us to find. We just had to know where to look” —Mr DNA, Jurassic Park

If you’re a living organism—and, presumably, you are—you have DNA, short for deoxyribonucleic acid. The molecule holds information about genetic makeup, and it’s much better at storage than any hard-drive on the market.


24. Quite a Find

DNA was first discovered by biochemist Friedrich Miescher in 1869, but it wasn’t until the 1940s that Oswald Avery realized DNA contains humans’ genetic blueprint. DNA’s double-helix structure was discovered in 1953 by James Watson and Francis Crick, who are now more famous than their predecessors.

DNA Facts

23. Human Road Map

It wasn’t until 2000 that scientists completed the first draft “map” of the human genome. Two rival groups of scientists united to do the work, which was expected to revolutionize medicine by enabling doctors to give diagnoses and prescribe treatments tailored to each patient.

DNA Facts

22. Whoa Baby!

The genome research also spurred fears that DNA knowledge would be used to create “designer babies,” not only editing out genetic imperfections, but enabling parents to choose everything from their child’s hair and eye colour to their intelligence level.

DNA Facts

21. What a Pair

There are three billion base pairs of DNA in the human genome, which look like rungs on twisted ladders. The bases always pair off in a specific way: adenine (A) with thymine (T), and cytosine (C) with guanine (G)–it’s sort of romantic, really.

DNA Facts

Advertisement

20. How Does it All Fit?

A lot of DNA crams into a tiny area: if uncoiled, all the DNA from a single human cell would be about 2-3 metres long. Together, all of the cells in your body contain 10 billion miles of tightly coiled DNA–that’s a return trip to Pluto!

DNA Facts

19. An Epic Read

Want to try typing out the human genome? Better get cracking: typing at 60 words per minute for eight hours a day, it would take about 50 years to finish.

DNA Facts

18. Practically Twins

You have more in common with your workplace nemesis than you think: the genetic difference between humans is only about 0.1%.

DNA Facts

17. Spot On

Leopards can’t change their spots, but cheetahs have it even worse: cheetahs are so genetically similar to each other that there’s virtually zero difference between the DNA in many of the cats. An ice age some 10,000 years ago wiped out nearly the entire cheetah population, leaving today’s animals highly inbred. As a result, very few produce healthy offspring.

DNA Facts

16. Whodunnit?

DNA testing in criminal cases began back in 1985, and was first used to convict a criminal, Florida rapist Tommie Lee Andrews, in 1987, followed by a Virginia serial killer in 1988.

 

15. Criminal Proof

As the science of DNA testing has evolved, forensic scientists have gained the ability to test smaller and smaller samples of genetic material–like a steering wheel that an offender may have touched–to identify crooks.

DNA Facts

Advertisement

14. Mistakes Do Happen

However, forensic DNA isn’t foolproof: scientists can make mistakes testing and interpreting DNA samples, and the samples themselves can become contaminated or degrade over time. More recently, scientists have discovered that that while humans’ genetic makeup is unique, genetic markers might not be—posing a risk that a sibling or even a total stranger could be wrongly convicted.

DNA Facts

13. DIY DNA

Nowadays, everyone’s jumping on the DNA-testing bandwagon, using at-home kits to find out secrets of their ancestry or their chances of future illness. But how accurate are they? Tests by triplets and a set of quadruplets have shown the results aren’t always accurate, with the siblings turning up different ancestry results.

DNA Facts

12. Outta This World

In 2008, DNA from several notable humans was sent into space on a memory device known as the Immortality Drive, which is stored at the International Space Station. It includes DNA from physicist Stephen Hawking, comedian Stephen Colbert, and Lance Armstrong. It also includes an oddball mix of musicians, novelists, and screenwriters, as well as a pro-wrestler, a venture capitalist, and a former Playboy model.

DNA Facts

11. Who Needs a Computer?

DNA itself is a much better storage drive than any hard-drive you’ll find at a tech store. In 2012, Harvard researchers managed to store 700 terabytes of data on a single gram of DNA. By way of comparison, the Panama Papers totalled just 2.6 terabytes.

DNA Facts

10. A Prickly Issue

Like felines and some other animals (including some primates, bats, and hyenas), male humans once had spikes on their penises. Fortunately for their sexual partners, the “penile spine enhancer” code disappeared from humans’ DNA about 700,000 years ago. Scientists say increased monogamy might be the reason why.

DNA Facts

9. Feeling Deleted

That penile DNA “deletion” is one of more than 500 which has occurred throughout human evolution–alongside increasing the size of our brains and removing sensory whiskers from our faces.

DNA Facts

Advertisement

8. Part-Human, Part-Virus

Ancient viruses that infected our ancestors and made them ill now inhabit our DNA. Many humans carry the entire DNA profile of a virus within their own genes.

DNA Facts

7. Two-For-One

Incredibly, people can have two totally different sets of DNA; some people may have absorbed their own twin in the womb. This happened to Lydia Fairchild: in 2002, a DNA test told her that she was not the mother of her own children–until further tests revealed she had two sets of genes. Patients who receive a bone marrow transplant can also end up with two different DNA profiles.

DNA Facts

 

6. Cannot Compute

Hundreds, if not thousands, of DNA errors per day–caused by ultraviolet light, copying mistakes and many other factors–damage our DNA. Some of it can be repaired by our cells, but other damage can eventually cause diseases, including cancer.

DNA Facts

5. That’s Bananas!

It’s probably not that surprising to learn that humans share 98% of our DNA with chimpanzees–but incredibly, we also share 70% with slugs and 50% with bananas. Now that’s food for thought.

DNA Facts

4. Clone Army

Dolly the sheep (1996-2003, RIP) was the best-known cloned animal, but she was far from the first. In fact, way back in the 1950s, a tadpole was the first successful clone.

DNA Facts

3. A Mammoth Task

While there have been numerous attempts to clone other living animals–from monkeys and cats to the endangered white rhino–scientists have yet to find a way to de-extinct long-gone animals, but that’s not stopping them from trying. Scientists from Japan, Russia, and South Korea are all working on projects to try to bring back the woolly mammoth.

DNA Facts

Advertisement

2. Life Finds a Way

That said, bringing back dinosaurs, a la Jurassic Park, looks impossible: scientists say their DNA would have broken down millions of years ago, even if preserved in very cold temperature–and even if there were some DNA left, it’s not possible to just fill in the blanks with another organism or implant the DNA into another animal’s egg and wait for a dinosaur to hatch. Given how Jurassic Park ended, it’s probably for the best.

DNA Facts

1. Can You Clone a Human?

While there’s been a lot of work to clone human embryos and stem cells, human clones seem like they will remain in science fiction for the time being–even though it’s scientifically possible. Ethical concerns and a lack of commercial incentives to clone humans mean we probably won’t see them any time in the near future.

DNA Facts

Sources: 123456789101112131415161718192021

Advertisement

More from Factinate

21 Out-There Facts About Space Exploration

28 Facts Behind Famous Photos

33 Badass Facts about Samuel L. Jackson.

34 Ruthless Facts about Genghis Khan

30 Interesting Facts about Samurai.

26 Smokin’ Facts about The Mask.



Dear reader,

Want to tell us to write facts on a topic? We’re always looking for your input! Please reach out to us to let us know what you’re interested in reading. Your suggestions can be as general or specific as you like, from “Life” to “Compact Cars and Trucks” to “A Subspecies of Capybara Called Hydrochoerus Isthmius.” We’ll get our writers on it because we want to create articles on the topics you’re interested in. Please submit feedback to contribute@factinate.com. Thanks for your time!

Want to get paid to write articles for us? We also have a Loyal Contributor Program, where our beloved users can create content for Factinate in a Word Document format. If we publish your articles on www.factinate.com, we will happily pay you for your time and effort. Our Loyal Contributor program is a vehicle for infusing our readers’ passion into our content. Please reach out to us for more details, style guidelines, and compensation information at contribute@factinate.com. Thanks for your interest!

Do you question the accuracy of a fact you just read? At Factinate, we’re dedicated to getting things right. Our credibility is the turbo-charged engine of our success. We want our readers to trust us. Our editors are instructed to fact check thoroughly, including finding at least three references for each fact. However, despite our best efforts, we sometimes miss the mark. When we do, we depend on our loyal, helpful readers to point out how we can do better. Please let us know if a fact we’ve published is inaccurate (or even if you just suspect it’s inaccurate) by reaching out to us at contribute@factinate.com. Thanks for your help!

Warmest regards,

The Factinate team